Magento 2.0

This blog explains the creation of a simple HelloWorld Module in Magento 2.0 for the developers to clearly understand the module creation strategy in Magento 2. In this article, we will go through building you a Hello_World module for Magento 2. If you have been through the previous versions of Magento, creation of module in Magento 2.0 version is very much different with its older versions. Here the Module Configuration to Content Render is quite different from the previous versions.

Lets Start with the Simple module creation in Magento 2.0 along with the Differences in module creation of Magento 2.0 with the Magento 1.X series :-

  • Directories and files
HelloWorld-directory-structure

Figure 1- Directory and File Structure


  • Configuration Of Module
    Create the NameSpace of the module parallel to the Magento folder inside the app/code/ directory (core functionality resides here), inside this, create your module. Then create your module’s etc folder. Inside that create module.xml to configure your module in the Magento. Lets create the Ced(Namespace)/HelloWorld(Modulename)/etc(configuration folder)/module.xml(module configuration file).

 

Magento 1.X Magento 2.x
In 1.X series, we start to create the module by configuring it in the Magento inside the app/etc/modules

ch2

Figure 2- Directory Structure in 1.x

 

In Magento 2.0 version, we configure the module through module.xml file in the module’s directory.(app/code/ced/helloworld/etc/) The benefit of this is that the modules are now more self-contained.

ch1

Figure 3 -Directory Structure in Magento 2.X

NOTE: Here we don’t have any code pools (core/local/community), No app/etc/modules folders, So no need to register in the app/etc/modules folder. We can also register our module under the base scope also i.e. inside the app/etc/ folder directly.

 

The code of module.xml is:

<config>     
  <module name="Ced_HelloWorld" schema_version="2.0.0" setup_version="0.0.1">
  </module>
</config>

Terms to keep in mind :

setup_version : Defines the version of the module that is important to give in the code.

schema_version :  Is an Optional Field.

name : In this we define the name of the module Namespace of the Module_Modulename.

As you create this file and then run the command under the directory of your Magento :-

Linux terminal: bin/magento setup:upgrade

Windows cmd: php bin/magento setup:upgrade

It will automatically register your module in advanced settings in the admin panel.

Also the setup-version is set into the database in the setup_module table. So its necessary to give set-up version in the module.

Optional requirements:
As the requirement increases, you can increase the configuration of the module,
like if you want your module to execute after some module, You can use the <sequence> tag for it,

<module name="Ced_HelloWorld" schema_version="2.0.0">
         <sequence>
            <module name="Magento_Core"/>
            <module name="Magento_Store"/>
         </sequence>
 </module>

 

  • Configure Controller
    The controller file is located in the the same way as in the previous versions but before that we have to configure the controller in the module in 1.x series of Magento. In Magento 2.0 version we register the controller using routes.xml file. This file is located inside the etc(configuration folder of your module)/area(frontend/backend)/routes.xml.

 

Magento 1.x Magento 2.x
1) Router for the controller is declare inside config.xml file. 1) In Magento 2 we need to declare it in a new file which is routes.xml inside the etc (configuration folder) folder.
2) In Magento 1.x series all controller are located inside controllers folder. 2) Here there is no controllers folder. All controller files will come under “Controller” folder.
3) Here we use class names. Also we have Controller classes with multiple methods. 3) But here we use namespaces. We have separate class or controller file for a separate action which runs the execute method to run that action.
4) Here there is a single file of controller and different methods are defined for each action in single file. 4) Here, we have different files for different actions and so, we can load different layout for different actions.

Code for the routing of controller through routes.xml:
Let us create routes.xml for our controller inside our module i.e. app/code/Ced/HelloWorld/etc/frontend/routes.xml

<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi: ="../../../../../ ../lib/internal/
Magento/Framework/App/etc/routes.xsd">
    <router id="standard">
        <route id="helloworld" frontName="helloworld">
            <module name="Ced_HelloWorld" />
        </route>
    </router>
</config>

Terms to keep in mind:

Router id : Entry Point of the module. “standard” for frontend router and “admin” for the admin router.

Route id : This id must be unique.

frontName : Sets the router name. That we use on the browser to call our module, like here “helloworld”. It must be the unique name for the module.

Create controller and action:

Let’s create “Controller” directory of our module. Then create a directory “Index” inside it that will act as Controller. Now create a action file “Index.php” inside “Index” directory.

app/code/Ced/HelloWorld/Controller/Index/Index.php

<?php
namespace Ced\HelloWorld\Controller\Index;
class Index extends \Magento\Framework\App\Action\Action
{
 public function execute()
    {
      echo "Reached to Controller";die;
    }
}
?>

Terms to keep in mind:
namespace :
Magento 2.0 uses namespace concept of php. It is the location where that file is located seperated by “\”. Usually in the previous versions we define it along with the class name.

execute : In Magento 2.0 as we have a different file for each action. And we can define our functionality in the execute function of that action file.

In Magento 2.0 now we have a different action file for each action, which uses the execute method to implement that functionality. Here “Index” is a controller and “Index.php” is action.

Note: Flush the cache of the admin panel.

  • Run your controller
    Open your browser and out the url in the browser magentoBaseUrl/frontname of your module/controller/action
    Example :- http://localhost/magento2/helloworld/

 

Error’s that may cause
1) Attribute ‘setup_version‘ is missing for module ‘Ced_HelloWorld
It means you haven’t set-up the “set-up” version correctly in the config.xml
2) Set-up version is not defined in your module:-
This error might also occur due to your custom module permissions. Please check the module permission.
3) Please upgrade your database: Run “bin/magento setup:upgrade” from the Magento root directory. “The following modules are outdated”:- Now that means you have to upgrade your database to register the set_up version for your module.
Solution:
Linux: run bin/magento setup:upgrade under your Magento directory
Windows: run php bin/magento setup:upgrade under your Magento directory.
4) Errors that might occur in linux system: When you run the command bin/magento setup:upgrade you can get below errors-a) [Zend_Db_Adapter_Exception] pdo_mysql extension is not installed. -It means pdo_mysql extension is either not installed or not at proper location. Solution: run apt-get install php5-mysql in terminalb) [Zend_Db_Adapter_Exception] SQLSTATE[HY000] [2002] Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket-‘That means your system is not redirecting the socket file to correct location. Solution: First, you have to locate where your mysql.sock file is located. In our case it was in /opt/lampp/var/mysql/mysql.sock.
you can locate file by terminal just run command “sudo find / -type s” with the super user privileges. Type su on terminal. Then give the password for user privilege. Navigate to where your mysql.sock file is located Right click on the file and select Make Link. Rename the link File to mysqld.sock then Right click on the file and Cut it Go to /var/run and create a folder called mysqld and Paste the Link File you will now have a mysqld.sock file at /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock and your work is
done now 🙂

Reaching to Controller is half the work done.

  • Load the Layouts and Blocks
    In Magento 2.0 all the layouts and template files reside in the view directory. So its very easy to handle them.

 

Magento 1.x Magento 2.x
1.) Here we have different folder for layout and templates, as well for css and js. 1.) In magento 2.0, every module has its own VIEW directory where all module-specific template, layout, js, and css/less files are stored.
2.) In Magento 1.x series generally, there is single layout file we create for a single module and create different handles for different actions. 2.) In Magento 2.0, for each layout handle there is a separate file.
3.) Here we have to define the layout configuration in config.xml so that Magento locate it. 3.) But Here we don’t have to configure anywhere. Here we name layout as router name_controller name_action name and Magento locates it automatically.

If you want to load the layout file for your module then follow some steps:

  • Call the layout in the Controller
    Here we are continuing our module development section so we are taking the same controller file i.e.Index controller inside (app/code/Ced/HelloWorld/Controller/Index/Index.php). Use loadLayout and renderLayout function to call the layout file for your Controller Action.

    <?php
    namespace Ced\HelloWorld\Controller\Index;
    class Index extends \Magento\Framework\App\Action\Action
    {
     public function execute()
        {
    	 $this->_view->loadLayout();
             $this->_view->renderLayout();
        }
    }
    ?>
  • Create the layout file for your Action
    Here we have HelloWorld module, Index as Controller and Index.php as a action. So, Our layout file is named as now routerName_controllerName_actionName. Lets create a helloworld_index_index.xml file inside the “view/frontend/layout/” directory, as we are creating frontend layout so area is frontend inside the view directory.

    <page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="../../../../../../../lib/internal/Magento/Framework/View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
        <body>
    	<referenceContainer name="content">
    	<block class="Ced\HelloWorld\Block\HelloWorld" name="helloworld" template="helloworld.phtml"/>
    	</referenceContainer>
       </body>
    </page>

    Points to focus:

    class : Here we define block file where module related functions resides.

    name : A unique name given to the block which is used for the cross references.

    template : Here we define the path to template file inside the templates directory.

    Note: <referenceContainer> and <referenceBlock> are the most common layout instructions which locate a container or block in the tree by ‘name’, then manipulate that element. Here content indicates that your content would be rendered on the content section.

  • Create a Block File :
    Simply to call the functions of the block in the template we have to create the block file for our module.It is created same as in magento 1.x series under app/code/Block/HelloWorld.php

    Magento 1.x Magento 2.x
    core/text_list block type used in Magento 1.x
    serves as a structural block.
    Here we use container wrapper for this purpose.
    <?php
    namespace Ced\HelloWorld\Block;
    class HelloWorld extends \Magento\Framework\View\Element\Template
    {
    }
    ?>
  • Create template file
    Now to Render your content on the Magento 2.0, create your phtml file inside the template folder same as in previous versions but the template should be created inside the view directory of your module in the area (frontend/backend) for which you are using it i.e. app/code/Ced/HelloWorld/view/frontend/templates/helloworld.phtml

    "HelloWorld Html is now get Rendered on frontend"

 

Summary of Module Development Steps

screenshot9

Figure 4 – Module development steps

HelloWorld Module:- Ced_Helloworld

Should you’ve any doubts, you’re mos welcome to ask.

Thanks for your interest!
Team CedCommerce

Please follow and like us:
Author of this post:

cedcommerce

Started in 2010, the company has been involved in over 1000 ventures of customizing solutions to address all the unique needs. Fuelled by its rich experience, the company has developed highly popular JET SHOPIFY INTEGRATION APP being used by 500+ sellers across the United States of America. And recently, it became the Official Channel Integration Partner of Walmart, Sears, and Newegg. The company offers all the products that make selling easier on e-commerce.

Sign Up and get the top CedCommerce Deals, Discounts, Blogs and New Product launch updates, once a week!

No charge. Unsubscribe anytime.

Related Posts

  • coporate office tips

    Great sources. Without doubt, you’re an authority in the industry.

    http://BusinessFirstFamily.com/

  • Ronald

    Yes really good description about the module creation in magento2.
    Simple and very clear.

  • Carlos

    It didn’t work for me..
    http://104.99.99.99/~magentoadm/helloworld
    I just see:
    Whoops, our bad…
    The page you requested was not found, and we have a fine guess why.
    If you typed the URL directly, please make sure the spelling is correct.
    If you clicked on a link to get here, the link is outdated.

  • Matin

    I got Clear Concept for Magento 2 Module structure but unfortunately this module not working for me , i also download module from download & Windows cmd: php bin/magento setup:upgrade link after that not working.